For the last few decades, Belgium has been split into various zones of linguistic tension so strong that, in 1962-63, a linguistic border was created to assure a peaceful coexistence among the Flemish, Walloons and residents of Brussels. How this border led to a series of problems that called into question the form of the state is discussed and various institutional reforms put into place beginning in the early 1970s are noted. Shifting attention to Belgium's linguistic circumstances in 1999, questions are raised about how the affirmation of Belgium's linguistic groups may have led to increased social division and how this social fragmentation may affect the Belgian identity.