This article presents research on the relative presence of the French and African languages among high school students in Burkina Faso. Based on an analytical model of ethnolinguistic vitality the study proposes an analysis of language use among a population sample of young educated francophones from Burkina. The survey carried out in several high schools used different sets of questions to measure the degree to which French is used outside of institutions, or the perceived current and future validity and legitimacy of mother-tongue and French languages, the nature and degree of identification the respondants experienced with these languages. Particular attention has been paid to identification with French in a context in which French is indispensable for climbing the socio-economic ladder while at the same time its speakers are searching for more autonomy from their colonial past. In addition to measuring the degree of language use for each language, the survey establishes precise data about the language experience of, and in, the language networks in each language. The multiple variables are organized theoretically . Some results can therefore statistically predict part of the future evolution of these languages for the group studied.